How does cancer spread through the body? – Ivan Seah Yu Jun

How does cancer spread through the body? – Ivan Seah Yu Jun


The onset of cancer usually begins as
a solitary tumor in a specific area of the body. If the tumor is not removed, cancer has the ability to
spread to nearby organs, as well as places far away
from the origin, such as the brain. So how does cancer move to new areas, and why are some organs more likely
to get infected than others? The process of cancer spreading across the
body is known as metastasis. It begins when cancer cells from an initial
tumor invade nearby normal tissue. As the cells proliferate, they spread via one of the three
common routes of metastasis: transcoelomic, lymphatic,
or hematogenous spread. In transcoelomic spread, malignant cells
penetrate the covering surfaces of cavities in our body. These surfaces are known as
peritoneum and serve as walls to segment
the body cavity. Malignant cells in ovarian cancer,
for example, spread through peritoneum,
which connects the ovary to the liver, resulting in metastasis on
the liver surface. Next, cancerous cells invade blood vessels
when they undergo hematogenous spread. As there are blood vessels almost
everywhere in the body, malignant cells utilize this to reach
more distant parts of the body. Finally, lymphatic spread occurs
when the cancer invades the lymph nodes, and travels to other parts of the body
via the lymphatic system. As this system drains many
parts of the body, it also provides a large network
for the cancer. In addition, the lymphatic vessels empty
into the blood circulation, allowing the malignant cells to undergo
hematogenous spread. Once at a new site, the cells once again
undergo proliferation, and form small tumors known as
micrometastases. These small tumors then grow
into full-fledged tumors, and complete the metastatic process. Different cancers have been known to have
specific sites of metastasis. For example, prostate cancer commonly
metastasizes to the bone, while colon cancer metastasizes
to the liver. Various theories have been proposed to
explain the migration pattern of malignant cells. Of particular interest are
two conflicting theories. Stephen Paget, an English surgeon, came up with the seed and soil
theory of metastasis. The seed and soil theory stated that
cancer cells die easily in the wrong microenvironment, hence they only metastasize to a location
with similar characteristics. However, James Ewing, the first professor
of pathology at Cornell University, challenged the seed and soil theory, and proposed that the site of metastasis
was determined by the location of the vascular and lymphatic channels
which drain the primary tumor. Patients with primary tumors that were
drained by vessels leading to the lung would eventually develop lung metastases. Today, we know that both theories contain
valuable truths. Yet the full stories of metastasis is much
more complicated than either of the two proposed theories. Factors like the cancer cell’s properties, and the effectiveness of the immune system
in eliminating the cancer cells, also play a role in determining
the success of metastasis. Unfortunately, many questions about
metastasis remain unanswered until today. Understanding the exact mechanism holds
an important key to finding a cure for
advanced stage cancers. By studying both the genetic and
environmental factors, which contribute to successful metastasis, we can pinpoint ways to shut down
the process. The war against cancer is
a constant struggle, and scientists are hard at work developing
new methods against metastasis. Of recent interest is immunotherapy, a modality which involves harnessing the
power of the immune system to destroy the migrating cells. This can be done in different ways, such as training immune cells to recognize
cancerous cells via vaccines. The growth and activity
of the immune cells can also be stimulated by injecting
man-made interleukins, chemicals which are usually secreted by
the immune cells of the body. These two treatments are only the
tip of the iceberg. With the collaborated research efforts of
governments, companies and scientists, perhaps the process of metastasis will
be stopped for good.

100 thoughts on “How does cancer spread through the body? – Ivan Seah Yu Jun

  1. Most times cancer spreads by seeding, which is caused sometimes during a biopsy. Your body traps cancer cells inside a cyst, or lump, which imprisons it in inside now called a tumor. When a biopsy is performed, they stick the tumor 6 or more times or cut a sample for testing. Well in duing so, what they dont want you to know, if it is cancerous, they have opened the tumor iside the body, releasing cancer seed cells from their prison. They get oxygen and travel through your body. Oxygen also gets into the tumor as well causing those to spread wildly as well. This is why everything moves at such a higher pace if its results are cancer. The Dr knows they released it during the biopsy, so its only so long now to possibly treat and prolong your life. Maybe. But when they do surgery, chemo, and radiation. Which possibly gets rid of the origional tumor, some of those seed may have already metastasized and be planted elsewhere in the body. They can only concentrate the chemo and rad. at that origional tumor spot. If that cancer has spread far enough, it will already be established there and possibly elsewhere in the body. The Dr cant tell if it has or not. They cant test you till well after ur last treatment. Thats why it a lot of times it just POPS up outta no where they say. Didnt see that coming. Gotta start trearments right away all over again. Usually within months up to 5years later if u survive that long. No one dies from their origional cancer! They die from complications of the spread seeds, medical procedures, or the meds. Thats FACT.
    R.Fletcher
    #FXCKCANCER

  2. If someone sees this, cancer isn't like a virus or bacteria right? It's just that the overgrowth the breakage into our blood vessels cause them to spread and not that they have a mind of their own to target different parts of our body.

  3. #PLEASEHELP#SHARE#FIGHTCANCER#THANKYOU
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  4. Hello there great people pls kindly release the clinical. Trial to all who are affected what diffrents can it be ? So by doing this act a strong task medical professors frm all inside our world must participaid.Talk money later…just talk money later….pls .kindly include israel. In this.work..their nice people tq frm Malaysia

  5. My sister inlaw had lung cancer stage 4 but after a course of Chemo 90% were gone left back small traces but the doctor said he discover her bone have early stages of a tumor is that good or bad?

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  8. before i was diagnosed with metastasis to the lungs from undifferentiated pleomorphic liposarcoma of the upper extremity (arm) i had sever swelling of my supraclavicular lymph nodes, while i did not get cancer in my lymphs i do believe they were struggling with the invasion that had started as these nodes drain the lungs and chest areas. we have so much to learn still, what a f'ed disease…. i do not know that i will see my way out of this mess, my cancer is too rare for absolute treatments – mostly chemo insensitive (grateful for that), surgery is the mainstay treatment and how much can you reasonably chop – once it has come to stage 4 we really have much more hope than surity of survival x

  9. my dad's brain tumor from his lung cancer just spread and grew in size again a couple weeks ago so i came here to see the science behind it

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  11. Oh my god my 2nd year medical exam is tomorrow. This video covers topics which may be tested in oncology ie metastatic cascade, theories, immunotherapy and cell based therapies. There's also immunoediting. Gah I'm so nervous

  12. If you could stop only metastasis, cancer would lose the main factor which makes it so life-threatening. It might not technically be a cure, because cancer could reoccur in the same place, but it would be exponentially more manageable

  13. There is great promise in Jim Hubble's MMS (Master Mineral Solution) therapy.
    There are several "protocols" for many ailments, including cancers.

    Also, many tumors are thought to originate from fungal infections (Candida).
    The body's immune system cannot penetrate the chitin layer of the fungus.
    "Candida Cleanse" is effective in destroying the chitin layer, then the body's immune system can destroy the fungus (Candida).
    If someone is diagnosed with cancer, they should immediately stop ingesting any and all sugars, alcohol, and most carbohydrates. Cancer and Candida thrive on sugars.
    In addition, creating an alkaline condition in the body can help in defeating cancer.
    Best wishes to all those suffering from cancer. God bless them and their families.

  14. yeah cancer is mutch diffrent and ur gonna know all about it (well almost all) in 5 years and start working for acure

  15. The third theory of metastasis is through chemokine signalling (a type signalling protein) allowing for a more specific spread usually to lymph nodes, and can leads to extracapsular spread (ECS) due to extra pressure exerted by the proliferating cancer cells. This has been a strong evident but in head and neck cancer due to the proximity. 1/3 of total human lymph nodes situated in the head and neck region

  16. Tumors are something horrible, because they don’t only weaken the body, but also the mind.

    Attacking physically as much as psychologically. They slowly drain the strength and the willpower of the host, rendering it more vulnerable with each passing day.

    A fight that becomes harder with the passing of time, until all hope it’s lost.

    This is why they are a threat and they must be destroyed by all means, because it takes all they have, until nothing’s left.

  17. Show compassion, forgive like Buddha's and bloody jesus' apparent (irrational, illogical) Teachings, and cancer will consume whole of you.

  18. When will metastasis stop…. This video came in 2014…. It is 2019 now….. Nothing new came in…
    People still suffering due to cancer….
    Getting operated over and over again…

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